Winter cold & flu season is starting to gear up. This week, I’d like to talk about a different kid of flu, “stomach flu.” I have to start by dispelling a common misconception that all flu is the same. “Stomach flu” is not caused by the same viruses as “respiratory flu.” Flu shots, given to prevent respiratory influenza, will not protect you against viruses affecting the gastrointestinal tract that cause infections known as viral gastroenteritis.
Noroviruses are the number one cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in America, with an estimated 21 million cases per year with about 70,000 hospitalizations and 800 deaths. The name norovirus is derived from a virus that was first identified as the cause of an outbreak of illness in a school in Norwalk, Ohio in 1968. They are a very sturdy group of viruses, able to withstand freezing and temperatures as high as 140 degrees. They can survive steaming when cooking shellfish and are even resistant to the levels of chlorine found in our municipal drinking water.
Typical symptoms of norovirus infection include the sudden onset of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain/cramping. Diarrhea is particularly common in children. These symptoms can lead to dehydration, especially in the young and elderly.
Noroviruses are commonly the responsible pathogen in outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness on cruise ships. The viruses are highly contagious and spread rapidly in close quarters such as day cares, schools, nursing homes, hospitals, restaurants and ships. The vomit and diarrhea of norovirus sufferers can contain billions of viruses. A person need only ingest 100 of these agents to become infected.
The virus is spread through exposure to the vomit and stool of an infected person, contact with surfaces or clothing/linens contaminated with the virus, food (particularly shellfish) and water containing the virus. Spread of the virus in schools and daycares is particularly common through shared toys, books and utensils. Infected persons who prepare food are also a common source.
The incubation period for norovirus illness is between 24 and 48 hours. Most people are ill for one to two days, but they are contagious from the time they fall ill until at least three days after their symptoms subside, sometimes up to two weeks later. It is therefore very important to keep children out of school for at least three days following their improvement and for anyone doing food preparation to avoid work for that time period as well.
Treatment of norovirus infection is symptomatic – avoiding dehydration and taking medication for fever. Usually water is adequate the first day or so, but if the illness persists, taking an oral rehydration solution like Pedialyte® is usually recommended. A simple recipe for rehydration solution is to add two level teaspoons of salt and eight heaping teaspoons of sugar to a two-liter bottle of water. Intake should be monitored, especially in children, who should take small sips rather than allowing them to gulp the fluid down.
The key to preventing the spread of norovirus is proper hygiene, particularly hand washing. Anyone who has norovirus-like symptoms or is taking care of someone with suspected illness should wash their hands regularly for 20 seconds using warm water & soap. This is especially important after using the toilet or changing diapers as well as prior to any food preparation. Vegetables, fruits and shellfish should be thoroughly washed before cooking.
Any surfaces or items that have been in contact with an infected person should be cleaned with bleach water made by mixing one part bleach with nine parts water. The solution should be left in place for 10 – 20 minutes. Clothing or linens that have been in contact with an infected person should be washed in hot water for the maximum cycle length and dried in a dryer.
Again, most people get over norovirus illness without complications. If a person appears dehydrated, lethargic, or complains of severe abdominal pain, he or she should contact their doctor.
Dr. John Roberts is a licensed medical physician. He writes a weekly column exclusively for Sagamore News Media publications.